Please select a letter to view glossary terms that begin with that letter.A B C D E F G H I J M N O P Q R S T U V
Some heart conditions can cause permanent damage to the heart muscle, and can be fatal. Methods that cardiologists use to study heart conditions include stress tests, a monitor to record your heart rate and rhythm, a biopsy, which studies a tiny piece of heart tissue, and an echocardiogram, which uses sound waves to show a picture of how your heart works.
Cardiothoracic surgery involves the heart and other areas within the chest. A cardiothoracic or thoracic surgeon provides care for patients with diseases within the chest area. This encompasses treating heart disease and abnormalities of the heart's vessels and valves, lung cancer, tumors within the chest area, diseases of the diaphragm, chest injuries, and trachea and airway problems. Thoracic surgeons have exceptional knowledge of diagnostic and surgical techniques and physiology of the heart, lungs and respiratory system.
Chemical pathology is the study of the cause and progress of diseases by using chemistry and other laboratory study. A chemical pathologist uses biochemical data from the study of tissues, cells and fluids from the body to aid in detecting, confirming and monitoring diseases. This specialist can act as a clinical consultant in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Clinical Biochemical Genetics:
Genetics is the study of the chemistry of cells, tissues and organs associated with heredity. Clinical biochemical genetics involves the biochemical analysis of chromosomes as they relate to inherited tendencies. A clinical biochemical geneticist performs and interprets tests done for genetic purposes, such as diagnosing a genetic disease or disease risk. The geneticist can analyze biochemical laboratory tests to determine the diagnosis and management of genetic diseases and inherited disorders.
Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology:
Cardiac electrophysiology refers to the use of technical equipment to diagnose abnormal heart rhythms. A cardiac electrophysiologist, who is a specialist in the field of cardiovascular disease, evaluates the results of detailed technical procedures to determine heart rhythms, and designs treatments appropriate for abnormal heart rhythms.
Genetics is the study of the chemistry of cells, tissues and organs associated with heredity. Cytogenetics is a combination of cytology (the study of cells) and genetics (the study of inherited variations). Through cytogenetics, scientists learn how genetic material, especially chromosomes, can affect future generations. A clinical cytogeneticist performs tests on genetic material in a laboratory, and analyses and interprets the results to determine whether a patient will have an inherited disease or a disease risk.
Genetics is the study of the chemistry of cells, tissues and organs associated with heredity. A clinical geneticist performs tests to diagnose and manage genetic disorders, and offers counseling services. A clinical genetic study involves tests of genetic material to determine possible genetic disorders in future generations.
Clinical lipidology is a branch of medicine focusing on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and associated disorders. A physician who specializes in the field of lipidology treats patients with lipid disorders and cardiovascular disease. This physician specialist studies and treats cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins in the blood, all of which contribute to heart disease and atherosclerosis. The field of lipidology is growing rapidly because of the number of patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease, obesity and diabetes mellitus.
Clinical Molecular Genetics:
Genetics is the study of the chemistry of cells, tissues and organs associated with heredity. A molecular geneticist performs laboratory tests of genetic material and interprets those tests regarding inherited disorders. Using test results, a geneticist can provide counseling to patients and their families, with information about their condition and the risk of a genetic disorder in the family. This can help patients make informed decisions.
Clinical neurophysiology is the study of nervous system disorders. A neurophysiologist is a neurologist or psychiatrist who specializes in the diagnosis and management of nervous system disorders using a combination of clinical evaluation and technical device testing, such as electroencephalography (EEG) or electromyography (EMG). These test results are interpreted by the neurophysiologist and communicated to the patient to treat nervous system disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome or a ruptured disc in the spine causing sciatica.
Clinical pathology is the laboratory study of cells and tissues. A pathologist identifies the causes and processes of diseases through microscopic study. Some human samples studied under a microscope include tissue specimens, cells, body fluids and secretions. Information gathered from the laboratory study of these samples from the body allow the pathologist to diagnose, confirm and monitor diseases.
Clinical Pathology and Anatomic Pathology:
Clinical and anatomic pathology is the study of the causes and processes of diseases. A pathologist uses techniques in chemistry, biology and physical science. The pathologist inspects specimens of tissues, cells and body fluids under a microscope to diagnose, monitor and treat diseases.
Colon Surgery and Rectal Surgery:
Colon and rectal surgery deals with the intestinal tract, the colon, rectum and anal canal. A colon and rectal surgeon diagnoses and treats various diseases of these areas of the body by medical and surgical means. This specialist may deal with other organs and tissues that are affected by intestinal disease, such as the liver, urinary, and female reproductive system.
A colon and rectal surgeon can also diagnose and manage conditions such as hemorrhoids, abscesses and fistulae (infections located around the anus and rectum), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and other inflammatory conditions. They also use technical procedures to evaluate and treat cancer, polyps, and other anorectal diseases.
Cost of Service:
Cost of service is an average of what Medicare pays physicians in an area for performing a procedure or treating a condition. Area is based on the physician's primary ZIP code. This reimbursement data is for a physician only; it does not include other related charges such as hospital costs or other specialists involved in the care. These costs estimates are based upon the most recent year of data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS).
Medicare provides healthcare coverage for over 43 million beneficiaries-those who are 65 years or older and those who otherwise qualify for benefits due to a disability. Because insurance companies (including Medicare) negotiate a discount on behalf of their beneficiaries, the amount they reimburse physicians (and hospitals) is much lower than the "list prices" doctors (and hospitals) charge. In fact, Medicare - the largest health plan in the country - negotiates the largest discounts and typically pays the least amount for healthcare provider services.
The cost of service may be different than what you ultimately pay. High and low range costs estimates indicate the variation in costs depending on the complexity of treatment.
Keep in mind that your physician may not perform all procedures listed here.
What this means to you.
By understanding how much physicians are typically paid for their services, you are in a better position to plan financially for your healthcare and to discuss with your physician lower payment options for non-insured services. You may want to ask your physician about less costly choices or whether all tests and procedures are necessary.