MVP   Healthgrades Glossary
 

Please select a letter to view glossary terms that begin with that letter.

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Nephrology:
Nephrology is the study and treatment of those with kidney disorders. A nephrologist is a physician who diagnoses and manages kidney disease and kidney function. A nephrologist consults with a surgeon regarding a patient's kidney transplantation, and will help manage blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte balance in the body, and dialysis procedures. This physician has special training in dialysis physiology, management of renal failure, pharmacology, hypertension and nutrition.

Neurodevelopment Disabilities:
Neurodevelopment disability are conditions of children with developmental delays or learning disorders. A neurodevelopmental disability physician is a neurologist or pediatrician having special knowledge, training and skill regarding conditions of the nervous system. Some conditions treated by this specialist include cerebral palsy, autism and spina bifida.

Therapy regimens may include speech therapy, occupational, physical or play therapy, and behavior modification techniques; some of these therapies may be combined with medication. Early intervention may result in overcoming disorders such as visual and hearing difficulties and mental retardation, as well as the disorders listed above.

Neurology:
Neurology is the study of disorders of the nervous system. A neurologist is a physician who diagnoses and treats nervous system disorders of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. This specialist deals with problems related to brain disease, disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and the nerves, and the blood vessels that provide circulation to these organs. A neurologist also treats specific diseases such as Bell's palsy, cerebellar ataxia and meningitis.

Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine:
Neuromusculoskeletal medicine deals with the systems of the body as a whole, and practitioners believe that an imbalance between the nervous system, blood vessels, musculature and skeletal framework of the body causes diseases and disorders. A doctor of osteopathy (D.O.), or an osteopath is a physician who deals with the structure and function of the body, and uses manipulations to help the body heal itself.

This holistic approach relies on all the neuromusculoskeletal systems of the body as an integral part of health. Osteopaths take a hands-on approach to disease, and though they are licensed to practice medicine, they use chiropractic-type adjustments or physical therapy in their treatment, and prefer to use medication and surgery as a last resort.

Neuropathology:
Neuropathology is knowledge of diseases of the brain and nervous system by laboratory and microscopic study of tissue samples. A neuropathologist specializes in diagnosing nervous system and neuromuscular system disorders. This pathology specialist can also act as a consultant to neurologists and neurosurgeons. Diseases of the nervous system are divided into two basic types: congenital (diseases that appear over a period of time) and degenerative (diseases that involve the vascular system or the metabolism, are toxic, or are the result of trauma or inflammation).

Neuroradiology:
Neuroradiology uses X-rays and other imaging procedures to learn about diseases of the nervous system. A neuroradiologist is a radiologist trained in diagnosing diseases of the nervous system using imaging systems such as X-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (also known as a CT or CAT scan) and angiography. These imaging systems are minimally or non-invasive. Other areas imaged and diagnosed by a neuroradiologist are the brain, head, neck and spinal cord.

Neurosurgery:
Neurosurgery is surgery of the nervous system. A neurological surgeon, or neurosurgeon, is a specialist who is trained in surgery of the nervous system, and can perform surgery on the brain, spinal cord, or other parts of the nervous system. This specialist is sometimes called a brain surgeon. The neurosurgeon also works with patients to diagnose, evaluate, and treat diseases or disorders of the nervous system, and aids in critical care of patients before, during and after surgery.

Nuclear Medicine:
Nuclear medicine is the use of radiation and imaging systems to detect disease. A nuclear medicine physician uses radioactive substances to diagnose and treat cancer and other diseases, and to research treatment for diseases. The radioactive molecules are administered to patients and then measured in the body, or samples taken from body tissue or fluids are measured. Radiation changes the body's tissues and cells, so the tests performed after radiation is administered indicate the extent of certain diseases.

Sometimes radiation is used to kill certain cancer cells, or to reduce the pain of bone cancer. A nuclear medicine physician uses radiology to learn the effectiveness of tumor treatment, to detect cancer, diagnose infection and inflammation, or detect a blood clot in the lungs.

Nuclear Radiology:
Nuclear radiology is the use of radiation and imaging systems to detect disease. A nuclear radiologist uses radioactive substances to diagnose and treat cancer and other diseases, and to research treatment for diseases. The radioactive molecules are administered to patients and then measured in the body, or samples taken from body tissue or fluids are measured. Radiation changes the body's tissues and cells, so the tests performed after radiation is administered indicate the extent of certain diseases.

Sometimes radiation is used to kill certain cancer cells, or to reduce the pain of bone cancer. A nuclear medicine physician uses radiology to learn the effectiveness of tumor treatment, to detect cancer, diagnose infection and inflammation, or detect a blood clot in the lungs.